Web-Scale Image Clustering Revisited

Yannis Avrithis, Yannis Kalantidis, Evangelos Anagnostopoulos, Ioannis Z. Emiris; Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV), 2015, pp. 1502-1510


Large scale duplicate detection, clustering and mining of documents or images has been conventionally treated with seed detection via hashing, followed by seed growing heuristics using fast search. Principled clustering methods, especially kernelized and spectral ones, have higher complexity and are difficult to scale above millions. Under the assumption of documents or images embedded in Euclidean space, we revisit recent advances in approximate k-means variants, and borrow their best ingredients to introduce a new one, inverted-quantized k-means (IQ-means). Key underlying concepts are quantization of data points and multi-index based inverted search from centroids to cells. Its quantization is a form of hashing and analogous to seed detection, while its updates are analogous to seed growing, yet principled in the sense of distortion minimization. We further design a dynamic variant that is able to determine the number of clusters k in a single run at nearly zero additional cost. Combined with powerful deep learned representations, we achieve clustering of a 100 million image collection on a single machine in less than one hour.

Related Material

author = {Avrithis, Yannis and Kalantidis, Yannis and Anagnostopoulos, Evangelos and Emiris, Ioannis Z.},
title = {Web-Scale Image Clustering Revisited},
booktitle = {Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV)},
month = {December},
year = {2015}