Augmenting CRFs with Boltzmann Machine Shape Priors for Image Labeling

Andrew Kae, Kihyuk Sohn, Honglak Lee, Erik Learned-Miller; The IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), 2013, pp. 2019-2026

Abstract


Conditional random fields (CRFs) provide powerful tools for building models to label image segments. They are particularly well-suited to modeling local interactions among adjacent regions (e.g., superpixels). However, CRFs are limited in dealing with complex, global (long-range) interactions between regions. Complementary to this, restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) can be used to model global shapes produced by segmentation models. In this work, we present a new model that uses the combined power of these two network types to build a state-of-the-art labeler. Although the CRF is a good baseline labeler, we show how an RBM can be added to the architecture to provide a global shape bias that complements the local modeling provided by the CRF. We demonstrate its labeling performance for the parts of complex face images from the Labeled Faces in the Wild data set. This hybrid model produces results that are both quantitatively and qualitatively better than the CRF alone. In addition to high-quality labeling results, we demonstrate that the hidden units in the RBM portion of our model can be interpreted as face attributes that have been learned without any attribute-level supervision.

Related Material


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[bibtex]
@InProceedings{Kae_2013_CVPR,
author = {Kae, Andrew and Sohn, Kihyuk and Lee, Honglak and Learned-Miller, Erik},
title = {Augmenting CRFs with Boltzmann Machine Shape Priors for Image Labeling},
booktitle = {The IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)},
month = {June},
year = {2013}
}